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.NET7 | Razor Pages | EF Core | One To Many Relationships | CRUD Example

In this article, we will implement Razor Pages CRUD operation with one-to-many relationships between the tables using the Entity Framework Core.

Razor Pages:

Razor Pages is a simplified web application model. Compared with the 'MVC' template, razor pages won't have 'Controllers', which means Razor Page is a combination of  'View' and 'Model'. The route will be configured within the razor page or view. A Razor Page composed with 2 files like '*.cshtml.cs'(Model) & '*.cshtml'(view).

One-To-Many Relationship Table SQL Script:

For this demo, we will create 2 tables 'Employee'(parent table) and 'EmployeeAddresses'(child table). Between the tables, we make a one-to-many relationship which means one employee record can have multiple records in the employee address table.
Employee Table Script:
CREATE TABLE Employee(
Id int IDENTITY (1,1) NOT NULL,
FirstName varchar (200) ,
LastName varchar (200) ,
JobRole varchar(50)
CONSTRAINT PK_Employee_Id PRIMARY KEY (Id)
)
EmployeeAddresses Table Script:
Create Table EmployeeAddresses(
Id int IDENTITY (1,1) NOT NULL,
City varchar(100),
Country varchar(100),
EmployeeId int NOT NULL
CONSTRAINT PK_EmployeeAddresses_Id PRIMARY KEY (Id)
CONSTRAINT FK_Employee_Address_EmployeeId FOREIGN KEY (EmployeeId)
REFERENCES Employee (Id)
)
  • Here 'EmployeeId' is the Foreign Key.

Create A .NET 7 Razor Page Application:

Let's create a .NET 7 Razor Page sample application to accomplish our demo. We can use either Visual Studio 2022 or Visual Studio Code(using .NET CLI commands) to create the .NET 7 applications. For this demo, I'm using the 'Visual Studio Code'(using the .NET CLI commands) editor.

.NET CLI command to create razor project.
CLI command
dotnet new webapp -o Your_Project_Name

Let's explore the Razor Page project.
(1)In 'Program.cs' registered the 'AddRazorPage()' service for Razor Pages.
(2) In 'Program.cs' let's understand default middleware
  • (Line: 9-14) Here configured middlewars that needs to be run in other environment(not in development or local environment). The 'UseExceptionHandler' configured with end user friendly error page. The 'UseHsts' helps to signal the client(browser) that only secured requests(HTTPS requests) are accepted.
  • (Line:16) The 'UseHttpsRedirection' middleware helps to redirect the non HTTP request to HTTPS
  • (Line: 17) The 'UseStaticFiles' middleware to serve the files like 'js', 'css', 'images', etc
  • (Line: 19) The 'UseRouting()' enables dotnet core endpoint routing
  • (Line: 23) The 'MapRazorPages()' middleware helps to serve the razor pages by its route.
(3) Let's explore default razor pages.

  • Here '_Layout' Razor page is our master template that contains common HTML like header & footer.
  • Here '_ViewStart' contains path our '_Layout' page.
  • Here '_ViewImports' contains global namespaces
  • Here 'Error', 'Index', 'Privacy' are default razro pages.
(4) Here 'wwwroot' folder to store all static files.

Entity Framework Core:

Entity Framework Core is an Object/Relational Mapping(ORM) framework. EF Core makes database communication more fluent and easy. The 'DatabaseContext' class acts as a database from our c# code, it will contain all registered classes DbSet<TEntity>(TEntity is any POCO class that represents the table).

Install Entity Framework Core NuGet Packages:

Let's install the Entity Framework Core Nuget Packages.
CLI command
dotnet add package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore --version 7.0.0

Package Manager Command
NuGet\Install-Package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore -Version 7.0.0

Now install the SQL Server library which is dependent on the Entity Framework Core library
CLI command
dotnet add package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.SqlServer --version 7.0.0

Package Manager Command
NuGet\Install-Package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.SqlServer -Version 7.0.0

Create Entities With One To Many Relationships:

Let's create 'Employee' & 'EnployeeAddresses' entities in the 'Data/Entities' folders(new folders).
Data/Entities/Employee.cs:
namespace dot7.razor.crudsample.Data.Entities;

public class Employee
{
    public int Id { get; set; }
    public string? FirstName { get; set; }
    public string? LastName { get; set; }
    public string? JobRole { get; set; }
    public List<EmployeeAddresses> EmployeeAddresses { get; set; }
}
  • (Line: 9) Here 'EmployeeAddresses' property is the navigation property. Here it represents one employee who can have multiple addresses.
Data/Entities/EmployeeAddresses.cs:
namespace dot7.razor.crudsample.Data.Entities;

public class EmployeeAddresses
{
    public int Id { get; set; }
    public string? AddressType { get; set; }
    public string? City { get; set; }
    public string? Country { get; set; }
    public int EmployeeId { get; set; }

    public Employee Employee { get; set; }
}
  • (Line: 9) The 'EmployeeId' property will be our foreign key property.
  • (Line: 11) The 'Employee' is our navigation property.

Create DatabaseContext:

Let's create the DatabaseContext like 'MyWorldDbContext' in the 'Data' folder.
Data/MyWorldDbContext.cs:
using dot7.razor.crudsample.Data.Entities;
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;

namespace dot7.razor.crudsample.Data;


public class MyWorldDbContext : DbContext
{
    public MyWorldDbContext(DbContextOptions<MyWorldDbContext> context) : base(context)
    {

    }

    public DbSet<Employee> Employee { get; set; }

    public DbSet<EmployeeAddresses> EmployeeAddresses{get;set;}

    protected override void OnModelCreating(ModelBuilder modelBuilder)
    {
        modelBuilder.Entity<EmployeeAddresses>()
        .HasOne(_ => _.Employee)
        .WithMany(a => a.EmployeeAddresses)
        .HasForeignKey(p => p.EmployeeId);
    }
}
  • (Line: 7) The 'Microsoft.EntityFramwork.DbContext' needs to be inherited by our 'MyWorldDbContext' to act as a Database Context class.
  • (Lin: 9) The 'Microsoft.EntityFrameworkDbContextOptions' is an instance of options that we are going to register in 'Program.cs' like 'Database Provider', 'Connectionstring', etc.
  • (Line: 14&16) All our table classes must be registered inside of our database context class with 'DbSet<T>' so that the entity framework can communicate with the table of the database.
  • (Line: 20-23) Using EF Core fluent API we are defining our one-to-many relationship between 'Employee' & 'EmployeeAddresses' classes.
Let's define the connection string in 'appsettings.Development.json' file.
appsettings.Development.json:
"ConnectionStrings": {
    "MyWorldDbConnection":"Data Source=[Your_Server_Name];Initial Catalog=[Your_Database_Name];Integrated Security=True;Connect Timeout=30"
}
Now register our database context in 'Program.cs'.
Program.cs:
using dot7.razor.crudsample.Data;
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;

builder.Services.AddDbContext<MyWorldDbContext>(options =>
{
    options.UseSqlServer(builder.Configuration.GetConnectionString("MyWorldDbConnection"));
});

Read Operation Fetch Only Employee Table Data:

Let's create a Razor Page file like 'EmployeeIndex.cshtml.cs' & 'EmployeeIndex.cshtml' files in 'Pages/Employee' folder(new folder). Implement the read operation by fetching the 'Employee' table data.
Pages/Employee/EmployeeIndex.cshtml.cs:
using dot7.razor.crudsample.Data;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.RazorPages;
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;

namespace dot7.razor.crudsample.Pages.Employee;

public class EmployeeIndex : PageModel
{
    private readonly MyWorldDbContext _myWorldDbContext;
    public EmployeeIndex(MyWorldDbContext myWorldDbContext)
    {
        _myWorldDbContext = myWorldDbContext;
    }

    public List<dot7.razor.crudsample.Data.Entities.Employee> AllEmployees { get; set; }

    public async Task<IActionResult> OnGetAsync()
    {
        AllEmployees = await _myWorldDbContext.Employee.ToListAsync();
        return Page();
    }
}
  • (Line: 8) To make our 'EmployeeIndex' class as a Razor Page model it needs to inherit the 'Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.RazorPages.PageModel'.
  • (Line: 11) Injected the Database context into our  Razor Page model.
  • (Line: 16) Declared a variable of a type that is collection 'Employee' to hold the data from the database and then bind the data to the UI.
  • (Line: 18-22)  The default method executed for the razor page HTTP Get request is 'OnGet' or 'OnGetAsync'. It is always ideal to have one method for each HTTP verbs like 'GET', 'POST'. There is an option to customize the name of the HTTP GET request method then it should be like 'OnGet{YourCustomNae}',  or 'OnGet{YourCustomName}Async', but if we customize the method name then we have to specify the custom name as value to the query parameter 'handlre'. So don't give the custom name unless it is required. Here in our 'OnGetAsync' method we are fetching the 'Employee' data from the database and the result assigned to 'AllEmployees' variable.
Pages/Employee/EmployeeIndex.cshtml:
@page "/employee/index"
@model dot7.razor.crudsample.Pages.Employee.EmployeeIndex

<div class="container">
    <div class="row">

        <table class="table table-striped table-hover">
            <thead>
                <tr>
                    <th scope="col">First Name</th>
                    <th scope="col">Last Name</th>
                    <th scope="col">Job Role</th>
                </tr>
            </thead>
            <tbody>
                @foreach (var emp in Model.AllEmployees)
                {
                    <tr>
                        <th>@emp.FirstName</th>
                        <td>@emp.LastName</td>
                        <td>@emp.JobRole</td>
                    </tr>
                }
            </tbody>
        </table>
    </div>
</div>
  • (Line: 1) Using the '@page' directive we defined our razor page route.
  • (Line: 2) Defined our Model 
  • (Line: 16-23)Looping our data to bind to UI.
Now run the application and then navigate to '/employee/index'.

Read Operation To Fetch Employee And EmployeeAddresses Table Data:

Let's create the new Razor Page files like 'EmployeeDetails.cshtml' & 'EmployeeDetails.cshtml.cs'. This page displays full details of employee including the collection of addresses.
Pages/Employee/EmployeeDetails.cshtml.cs:
using dot7.razor.crudsample.Data;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.RazorPages;
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;

namespace dot7.razor.crudsample.Pages.Employee;

public class EmployeeDetails : PageModel
{
    private readonly MyWorldDbContext _myWorldDbContext;
    public EmployeeDetails(MyWorldDbContext myWorldDbContext)
    {
        _myWorldDbContext = myWorldDbContext;
    }

    public dot7.razor.crudsample.Data.Entities.Employee Employee { get; set; }
    public async Task<IActionResult> OnGetAsync(int id)
    {
        Employee = await _myWorldDbContext.Employee.Include(_ => _.EmployeeAddresses)
        .Where(_ => _.Id == id).FirstOrDefaultAsync();
        return Page();
    }
}
  • (Line: 19-21) The 'Include' from the entity framework library is configured with a navigation property like 'EmployeeAddress'. The 'Include' generate a SQL join query between the 'Employee' & 'EmployeeAddressed' table.
Pages/Employee/EmployeeDetails.cshtml:
@page "/employee/details"
@model dot7.razor.crudsample.Pages.Employee.EmployeeDetails

<div class="container">
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col col-md-6 offset-md-3">
            <div class="card">
                <div class="card-body">
                    <h5 class="card-title">@Model.Employee.FirstName @Model.Employee.LastName</h5>
                    <h5 class="card-title">@Model.Employee.JobRole</h5>
                    @foreach (var item in Model.Employee.EmployeeAddresses)
                    {
                        <div class="card">
                            <div class="card-header">
                                @item.AddressType Address
                            </div>
                            <div class="card-body">
                                City - @item.City / Country - @item.Country
                            </div>
                        </div>
                    }
                </div>
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>
  • (Line: 11-21) Looping the employee addresses to bind to UI.
Now add a details link in 'EmployeeIndex' razor that helps to navigate to the 'EmployeeDetails' razor page.
Pages/Employee/EmployeeIndex.cshtml:
<!-- existing code hidden for display purpose -->
<table class="table table-striped table-hover">
	<thead>
		<tr>
			<th scope="col">Actions</th>
		</tr>
	</thead>
	<tbody>
		@foreach (var emp in Model.AllEmployees)
		{
			<tr>
				<td>
					<a asp-page="./EmployeeDetails" asp-route-id="@emp.Id">Details</a>
				</td>
			</tr>
		}
	</tbody>
</table>
  • (Line: 5) Added a new column like 'Actions'.
  • (Line: 13) Added the anchor tag to navigate for the 'EmployeeDetails' page. Here 'asp-page' & 'asp-route-id' are razor tag helpers, for 'asp-page' pass the name of the razor page file and for 'asp-route-id' pass the value for the query parameter 'id'.

Create Operation:

Let's add new Razor Page files like 'EmployeeCreate.cshtml' & 'EmployeeCreate.cshtml.cs' to implement the create opertion.
Pages/Employee/EmployeeCreate.cshtml.cs:
using dot7.razor.crudsample.Data;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.RazorPages;

namespace dot7.razor.crudsample.Pages.Employee;

public class EmployeeCreate : PageModel
{
    private readonly MyWorldDbContext _myWorldDbContext;
    public EmployeeCreate(MyWorldDbContext myWorldDbContext)
    {
        _myWorldDbContext = myWorldDbContext;
    }
    [BindProperty]
    public dot7.razor.crudsample.Data.Entities.Employee NewEmployee { get; set; }

    public async Task<IActionResult> OnGetAsync()
    {
        return Page();
    }

    public async Task<IActionResult> OnPostAsync()
    {
        _myWorldDbContext.Employee.Add(NewEmployee);
        await _myWorldDbContext.SaveChangesAsync();
        return Redirect("index");
    }
}
  • (Line: 14-15) Here 'NewEmployee' property of type 'Employee' is registered with the 'BindProperty' attribute. So the 'BindProperty' attribute makes our 'NewEmployee' property capture the user-entered form data.
  • (Line: 22) The 'OnPostAsync' method executes for HTTP Post request(eg: form post)
  • (Line: 24) Trying to save our form data. Since 'NewEmployee' reads form data and has a navigation property like 'EmployeeAddress', if form data contains a collection of 'EmployeeAddress' information, on saving 'Employee' data 'EmployeeAddress' data will also be saved.
  • (Line: 26) After saving finally redirect back to the index page.
Pages/Employee/EmployeeCreate.cshtml:
@page "/employee/create"
@model dot7.razor.crudsample.Pages.Employee.EmployeeCreate

<div class="container">
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col col-md-6 offset-md-3">
            <form method="post">
                <legend>Add A Employee</legend>
                <div class="mb-3">
                    <label for="txtfirstName" class="form-label">First Name</label>
                    <input asp-for="NewEmployee.FirstName" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtfirstName" />
                </div>
                <div class="mb-3">
                    <label for="txtlastName" class="form-label">Last Name</label>
                    <input asp-for="NewEmployee.LastName" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtlastName" />
                </div>
                <div class="mb-3">
                    <label for="txtjobRole" class="form-label">Job Role</label>
                    <input asp-for="NewEmployee.JobRole" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtjobRole" />
                </div>
                @for (int i = 0; i <= 1; i++)
                {
                    <div class="row">

                        <legend>Address @i</legend>
                        <div class="mb-3">
                            <label for="txtCity" class="form-label">Address Type</label>
                            <input asp-for="NewEmployee.EmployeeAddresses[i].AddressType" type="text"
                            class="form-control" />
                        </div>
                        <div class="mb-3">
                            <label for="txtCity" class="form-label">City</label>
                            <input asp-for="NewEmployee.EmployeeAddresses[i].City" type="text" class="form-control" />
                        </div>
                        <div class="mb-3">
                            <label for="txtCity" class="form-label">Country</label>
                            <input asp-for="NewEmployee.EmployeeAddresses[i].Country" type="text" class="form-control" />
                        </div>

                    </div>
                }

                <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
            </form>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>
  • (Line: 1) The '@page' directive to define the route
  • (Line: 11&15&19) Here we can observe that 'NewEmployee' variable properties are mapped to 'asp-for' tag. The 'asp-for' tag renders as an HTML 'name' attribute that helps to post the form data.
  • (Line: 21-41) Here 2 address forms are trying to render by looping it.
  • (Line: 28&33&37)Here are our forms for the 'EmployeeAddress' collection and configured with 'asp-for'.
In the 'EmployeeIndex.cshtml' add a link for navigating to 'EmployeeCreate.cshtml'
Pages/Employee/EmployeeIndex.cshtml:
<div class="col col-md-4 offset-md-4">
	<a asp-page="./EmployeeCreate" >Add New Employee</a>
</div>
(Step 1)

(Step 2)

(Step 3)

Update Operation:

Let's create new Razor Page files like 'EmployeeUpdate.cshtml.cs' & 'EmployeeUpdate.cshtml'.
Pages/Employee/EmployeeUpdate.cshtml.cs:
using dot7.razor.crudsample.Data;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.RazorPages;
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;

namespace dot7.razor.crudsample.Pages.Employee;

public class EmployeeUpdate : PageModel
{
    private readonly MyWorldDbContext _myWorldDbContext;
    public EmployeeUpdate(MyWorldDbContext myWorldDbContext)
    {
        _myWorldDbContext = myWorldDbContext;
    }
    [BindProperty]
    public dot7.razor.crudsample.Data.Entities.Employee EmployeeToUpdate { get; set; }

    public async Task<IActionResult> OnGetAsync(int id)
    {
        EmployeeToUpdate = await _myWorldDbContext.Employee.Include(_ => _.EmployeeAddresses)
        .Where(_ => _.Id == id).FirstOrDefaultAsync();
        return Page();
    }

    public async Task<IActionResult> OnPostAsync()
    {
        _myWorldDbContext.Employee.Update(EmployeeToUpdate);
        await _myWorldDbContext.SaveChangesAsync();
        return Redirect("index");
    }
}
  • (Line: 18-23) The 'OnGetAsync' method is executed for HTTP GET request. Here we fetch the 'Employee' by 'id' and also fetch it 'EmployeeAddress' data to display it on the form. The 'Include' ef-core method loads the child table information
  • (Line: 25-30) The 'OnPostAsync' method is executed for HTTP POST requests. The 'Update' method updates both 'Employee' & 'EmployeeAddress' data.
Pages/Employee/EmployeeUpdate.csthml:
@page "/employee/update"
@model dot7.razor.crudsample.Pages.Employee.EmployeeUpdate


<div class="container">
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col col-md-6 offset-md-3">
            <form method="post">
                <legend>Update Employee</legend>
                <input type="hidden" asp-for="EmployeeToUpdate.Id">
                <div class="mb-3">
                    <label for="txtfirstName" class="form-label">First Name</label>
                    <input asp-for="EmployeeToUpdate.FirstName" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtfirstName" />
                </div>
                <div class="mb-3">
                    <label for="txtlastName" class="form-label">Last Name</label>
                    <input asp-for="EmployeeToUpdate.LastName" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtlastName" />
                </div>
                <div class="mb-3">
                    <label for="txtjobRole" class="form-label">Job Role</label>
                    <input asp-for="EmployeeToUpdate.JobRole" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtjobRole" />
                </div>
                @for (int i = 0; i <= 1; i++)
                {
                    <div class="row">

                        <legend>Address @i</legend>
                        <input type="hidden" asp-for="EmployeeToUpdate.EmployeeAddresses[i].Id">
                        <div class="mb-3">
                            <label for="txtCity" class="form-label">Address Type</label>
                            <input asp-for="EmployeeToUpdate.EmployeeAddresses[i].AddressType" type="text"
                            class="form-control" />
                        </div>
                        <div class="mb-3">
                            <label for="txtCity" class="form-label">City</label>
                            <input asp-for="EmployeeToUpdate.EmployeeAddresses[i].City" type="text" class="form-control" />
                        </div>
                        <div class="mb-3">
                            <label for="txtCity" class="form-label">Country</label>
                            <input asp-for="EmployeeToUpdate.EmployeeAddresses[i].Country" type="text" class="form-control" />
                        </div>

                    </div>
                }

                <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
            </form>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>
  • (Line: 10&28) The only difference between 'create' and update forms are 'Id' values. In the 'Update' form we have to store our 'Id' values in the hidden field for both 'Employee'  & 'EmployeeAddress' table
Let's add the 'update' anchor tag in 'EmployeeIndex' so that we can navigate to the 'EmployeeUpdate' page.
Pages/Employee/EmployeeIndex.cshtml:
<a asp-page="./EmployeeUpdate" asp-route-id="@emp.Id">Update</a>
(Step 1)

(Step 2)

Delete Operation:

Let's create new Razor Pages files like 'EmployeDelete.cshtml' & 'EmployeeDelete.cshtml.cs' to implement the delete operation.
Pages/Employee/EmployeeDelete.cshtml.cs:
using dot7.razor.crudsample.Data;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.RazorPages;
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;

namespace dot7.razor.crudsample.Pages.Employee;

public class EmployeeDelete : PageModel
{
    private readonly MyWorldDbContext _myWorldDbContext;
    public EmployeeDelete(MyWorldDbContext myWorldDbContext)
    {
        _myWorldDbContext = myWorldDbContext;
    }

    public dot7.razor.crudsample.Data.Entities.Employee Employee { get; set; }

    public async Task<IActionResult> OnGetAsync(int id)
    {
        Employee = await _myWorldDbContext.Employee.Include(_ => _.EmployeeAddresses)
        .Where(_ => _.Id == id).FirstOrDefaultAsync();
        return Page();
    }

    public async Task<IActionResult> OnPostAsync(int id)
    {
        var employeeToDelete = await _myWorldDbContext.Employee.Include(_ => _.EmployeeAddresses)
        .Where(_ => _.Id == id).FirstOrDefaultAsync();

        _myWorldDbContext.Employee.Remove(employeeToDelete);
        await _myWorldDbContext.SaveChangesAsync();
        return Redirect("index");
    }
}
  • (Line: 18-23) In 'OnGetAsync' method fetches the item to display on our delete page.
  • (Line: 25-34) In 'OnPostAsync' method fetch 'Employee' record along with 'EmployeeAddress' records and then delete by passing them to 'Reomve' method.
Pages/Employee/EmployeeDelete.cshtml:
@page "/employee/delete"
@model dot7.razor.crudsample.Pages.Employee.EmployeeDelete

<div class="container">
    <div class="row">
        <div class="col col-md-6 offset-md-3">
            <div class="card">
                <div class="card-body">
                    <h5 class="card-title">@Model.Employee.FirstName @Model.Employee.LastName</h5>
                    <h5 class="card-title">@Model.Employee.JobRole</h5>
                    @foreach (var item in Model.Employee.EmployeeAddresses)
                    {
                        <div class="card">
                            <div class="card-header">
                                @item.AddressType Address
                            </div>
                            <div class="card-body">
                                City - @item.City / Country - @item.Country
                            </div>
                        </div>
                    }
                </div>
                <div class="card-body">
                    <form method="post">
                        <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Confirm Delete</button>
                    </form>
                </div>
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>
</div>
  • (Line: 24-26) Our 'Confirm Delete' button wrapped around a 'form' tag so that on clicking button we will invoke our 'OnPostAsync()' method in 'EmployeeDelete.cshtml.cs' file.
Now let's add the anchor tag link for 'Delete' in our 'EmployeeIndex.cshtml'.
Pages/EmployeeIndex.cshtml:
<a asp-page="./EmployeeDelete" asp-route-id="@emp.Id">Delete</a>

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In this article, we are going to write test cases to an Asp.NetCore Web API(.NET6) application using the xUnit. xUnit For .NET: The xUnit for .Net is a free, open-source, community-focused unit testing tool for .NET applications. By default .Net also provides a xUnit project template to implement test cases. Unit test cases build upon the 'AAA' formula that means 'Arrange', 'Act' and 'Assert' Arrange - Declaring variables, objects, instantiating mocks, etc. Act - Calling or invoking the method that needs to be tested. Assert - The assert ensures that code behaves as expected means yielding expected output. Create An API And Unit Test Projects: Let's create a .Net6 Web API and xUnit sample applications to accomplish our demo. We can use either Visual Studio 2022 or Visual Studio Code(using .NET CLI commands) to create any.Net6 application. For this demo, I'm using the 'Visual Studio Code'(using the .NET CLI command) editor. Create a fo

A Small Guide On NestJS Queues

NestJS Application Queues helps to deal with application scaling and performance challenges. When To Use Queues?: API request that mostly involves in time taking operations like CPU bound operation, doing them synchronously which will result in thread blocking. So to avoid these issues, it is an appropriate way to make the CPU-bound operation separate background job.  In nestjs one of the best solutions for these kinds of tasks is to implement the Queues. For queueing mechanism in the nestjs application most recommended library is '@nestjs/bull'(Bull is nodejs queue library). The 'Bull' depends on Redis cache for data storage like a job. So in this queueing technique, we will create services like 'Producer' and 'Consumer'. The 'Producer' is used to push our jobs into the Redis stores. The consumer will read those jobs(eg: CPU Bound Operations) and process them. So by using this queues technique user requests processed very fastly because actually

Usage Of CancellationToken In Asp.Net Core Applications

When To Use CancellationToken?: In a web application request abortion or orphan, requests are quite common. On users disconnected by network interruption or navigating between multiple pages before proper response or closing of the browser, tabs make the request aborted or orphan. An orphan request can't deliver a response to the client, but it will execute all steps(like database calls, HTTP calls, etc) at the server. Complete execution of an orphan request at the server might not be a problem generally if at all requests need to work on time taking a job at the server in those cases might be nice to terminate the execution immediately. So CancellationToken can be used to terminate a request execution at the server immediately once the request is aborted or orphan. Here we are going to see some sample code snippets about implementing a CancellationToken for Entity FrameworkCore, Dapper ORM, and HttpClient calls in Asp.NetCore MVC application. Note: The sample codes I will show in

Blazor WebAssembly Custom Authentication From Scratch

In this article, we are going to explore and implement custom authentication from the scratch. In this sample, we will use JWT authentication for user authentication. Main Building Blocks Of Blazor WebAssembly Authentication: The core concepts of blazor webassembly authentication are: AuthenticationStateProvider Service AuthorizeView Component Task<AuthenticationState> Cascading Property CascadingAuthenticationState Component AuthorizeRouteView Component AuthenticationStateProvider Service - this provider holds the authentication information about the login user. The 'GetAuthenticationStateAsync()' method in the Authentication state provider returns user AuthenticationState. The 'NotifyAuthenticationStateChaged()' to notify the latest user information within the components which using this AuthenticationStateProvider. AuthorizeView Component - displays different content depending on the user authorization state. This component uses the AuthenticationStateProvider

How Response Caching Works In Asp.Net Core

What Is Response Caching?: Response Caching means storing of response output and using stored response until it's under it's the expiration time. Response Caching approach cuts down some requests to the server and also reduces some workload on the server. Response Caching Headers: Response Caching carried out by the few Http based headers information between client and server. Main Response Caching Headers are like below Cache-Control Pragma Vary Cache-Control Header: Cache-Control header is the main header type for the response caching. Cache-Control will be decorated with the following directives. public - this directive indicates any cache may store the response. private - this directive allows to store response with respect to a single user and can't be stored with shared cache stores. max-age - this directive represents a time to hold a response in the cache. no-cache - this directive represents no storing of response and always fetch the fr

Angular 14 State Management CRUD Example With NgRx(14)

In this article, we are going to implement the Angular(14) state management CRUD example with NgRx(14) NgRx Store For State Management: In an angular application to share consistent data between multiple components, we use NgRx state management. Using NgRx state helps to avoid unwanted API calls, easy to maintain consistent data, etc. The main building blocks for the NgRx store are: Actions - NgRx actions represents event to trigger the reducers to save the data into the stores. Reducer - Reducer's pure function, which is used to create a new state on data change. Store - The store is the model or entity that holds the data. Selector - Selector to fetch the slices of data from the store to angular components. Effects - Effects deals with external network calls like API. The effect gets executed based the action performed Ngrx State Management flow: The angular component needs data for binding.  So angular component calls an action that is responsible for invoking the API call.  Aft

Angular 14 Crud Example

In this article, we will implement CRUD operation in the Angular 14 application. Angular: Angular is a framework that can be used to build a single-page application. Angular applications are built with components that make our code simple and clean. Angular components compose of 3 files like TypeScript File(*.ts), Html File(*.html), CSS File(*.cs) Components typescript file and HTML file support 2-way binding which means data flow is bi-directional Component typescript file listens for all HTML events from the HTML file. Create Angular(14) Application: Let's create an Angular(14) application to begin our sample. Make sure to install the Angular CLI tool into our local machine because it provides easy CLI commands to play with the angular application. Command To Install Angular CLI npm install -g @angular/cli Run the below command to create the angular application. Command To Create Angular Application ng new name_of_your_app Note: While creating the app, you will see a noti