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.NET5 MVC CRUD Operations Using Entity Framework Core

In this article, we will learn about .Net5 MVC CRUD operation using Entity Framework Core.

MVC:

The Model-View-Controller(MVC) is an architectural pattern. MVC divides UI applications into 3 different layers. Each layer will have its own responsibility.

An MVC application on encountering the user request will be sent to the controller. The controller will query the required data from the database and then furnished our data into 'Model' and then select appropriate 'View'. The 'View' will render the data or logic inside of the 'Model'. The 'Model' is the bridge between 'Controller' and 'View' for transferring the data. So in  MVC, the 'Controller' depends on both 'Model' and 'View', the 'View' depends on 'Model'.

Create A .Net5 MVC Application:

Begin our journey by creating a .Net5 MVC application.

Visual Studio users can easily create a .Net5 MVC templated application. On Creating application Visual Studio UI shows different template options in that we have to select "ASP .NET Core Web App(model - view -controller)".

Here for this demo, I'm using Visual Studio Code Editor and .NET CLI. Run the below .NET CLI command to create .Net5 MVC application.
CLI Command To MVC Application:
dotnet new mvc -n your_project_name
After creating a project, we need to aware of few basic things like:

MVC DI(Dependency Injection) Service - To enable MVC related services with DI in 'Startup.cs' we need to register 'AddControllersWithViews'

Endpoint Middleware - MVC supports 2 different approaches of routing like 'Conventional Based Routing' and 'Attribute-Based Routing'. So in the endpoint middleware by default configures with conventional based routing on creating the project.

_ViewImports.cshtml - File used to configure namespaces.

_ViewStart.cshtml - File helps to load the master layout.

Shared/_Layout.cshtml - Default master layout.

wwwroot - Folder to store static files like 'js', 'css', 'images', etc.

appsettings.{environment variable name}.json - Configuration file.

Entity Framework Core:

Entity Framework Core is an Object/Relational Mapping(ORM) framework. EF Core makes database communication more fluent and easy. 
EF Core supports:
  • Database First Approach.
  • Code First Approach.
Code First Approach means first we will create c# POCO classes and then create the database tables. Code First Approach has one more sub-category like 'Code First With Existing Database'. So the 'Code First With Existing Database' can work with the already created tables in the database which is an ideal choice for real-time development. Our demo will be implemented using 'Code First With Existing Database'.

Install EF Core Nuget:

Now install ef core and SQL ef core extension Nuget package into our application.
Package Manager(Visual Studio):
Install-Package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore -Version 5.0.6
Install-Package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.SqlServer -Version 5.0.6
CLI Commands(Visual Studio Code):
dotnet add package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore --version 5.0.6
dotnet add package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.SqlServer --version 5.0.6

Sample SQL Script:

To follow the demo, run the SQL script to generate the table.
CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Gadgets](
	[Id] [int] IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,
	[ProductName] [varchar](max) NULL,
	[Brand] [varchar](max) NULL,
	[Cost] [decimal](18, 0) NOT NULL,
	[ImageName] [varchar](1024) NULL,
	[Type] [varchar](128) NULL,
	[CreatedDate] [datetime] NULL,
	[ModifiedDate] [datetime] NULL,
PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED 
(
	[Id] ASC
)WITH (PAD_INDEX = OFF, STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE = OFF, IGNORE_DUP_KEY = OFF, ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS = ON, ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS = ON) ON [PRIMARY]
) ON [PRIMARY] TEXTIMAGE_ON [PRIMARY]

Set Up EF Core DbContext:

First, let's create POCO class that represents our table. So let's create a new folder 'Data', inside of it create one more folder like 'Entities'. Inside of the 'Entities' folder creates our POCO class.
Data/Entities/Gadgets.cs:
namespace Dotnet5.MVC.CRUD.EF.Data.Entities
{
    public class Gadgets
    {
        public int Id { get; set; }
        public string ProductName { get; set; }
        public string Brand { get; set; }
        public decimal Cost { get; set; }
        public string Type { get; set; }
    }
}
In EF Core DbContext is like a database that manages all POCO classes(classes represent tables). Inside the 'Data' folder create a context class.
Data/MyWorldDbContext.cs:
using Dotnet5.MVC.CRUD.EF.Data.Entities;
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;

namespace Dotnet5.MVC.CRUD.EF.Data
{
    public class MyWorldDbContext : DbContext
    {
        public MyWorldDbContext(DbContextOptions<MyWorldDbContext> options) : base(options)
        {

        }
        public DbSet<Gadgets> Gadgets { get; set; }
    }
}
Add database connection string into 'appsetting.Development.json'.
appsettings.Development.json:
"ConnectionStrings":{
    "MyWorldDbConnection":"your_connection"
}
Register 'MyWorlDbContext' into the dependency services.
services.AddDbContext<MyWorldDbContext>(options =>
{
	options.UseSqlServer(Configuration.GetConnectionString("MyWorldDbConnection"));
});

Read Operation:

First, let's create a 'Model' class for our read operation.
Models/GadgetsContainerVm.cs:
using System.Collections.Generic;
using Dotnet5.MVC.CRUD.EF.Data.Entities;

namespace Dotnet5.MVC.CRUD.EF.Models
{
    public class GadgetsContainerVm
    {
        public List<Gadgets> AllGadgets { get; set; }
    }
}
Now in the 'Controllers' folder add a new controller like 'GadgetsController.cs'. Now for our read operation let's add a new action method and name it like 'All'. So our action method contains logic to fetch the data from the database and then pass data to  'Model' and then invoke appropriate 'View'.
Controllers/GadgetsController.cs:
using System.Linq;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Dotnet5.MVC.CRUD.EF.Data;
using Dotnet5.MVC.CRUD.EF.Models;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc;
using Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore;

namespace Dotnet5.MVC.CRUD.EF.Controllers
{
    public class GadgetsController : Controller
    {
        private readonly MyWorldDbContext _myWorldDbContext;
        public GadgetsController(MyWorldDbContext myWorldDbContext)
        {
            _myWorldDbContext = myWorldDbContext;
        }

        [HttpGet]
        public async Task<IActionResult> All()
        {
            var allGadtets = await _myWorldDbContext.Gadgets.OrderByDescending(_ => _.Id).ToListAsync();
            var model = new GadgetsContainerVm
            {
                AllGadgets = allGadtets
            };
            return View("Index",model);
        }
    }
}
  • (Line: 10) To make a class as a controller it should inherit 'Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.Controller'.
  • (Line: 12-16) Injecting our database context.
  • (Line: 18) Action method decorated with 'HttpGet'. That HTTP verb represents the type of request that can invoke our action method.
  • (Line: 19-27) Fetching data from the database and then saving it into the 'Model' object. Finally, invoke the 'View' by sending 'Model' data.
Now let's create our 'View'. In the 'Views' folder create a new folder like 'Gadgets'(this folder name must be matched with our controller name so that controller can check the view in that folder). Now add 'Index.cshtml'(View) in 'Gadgets' folder.
Views/Gadgets/Index.cshtml:
@model GadgetsContainerVm
<div>
    <table class="table table-dark table-striped">
        <thead>
            <tr>
                <th scope="col">Id</th>
                <th scope="col">Product Name</th>
                <th scope="col">Brand</th>
                <th scope="col">Cost</th>
                <th scope="col">Type</th>
            </tr>
        </thead>
        <tbody>
            @foreach (var item in Model.AllGadgets)
            {
                <tr>
                    <th scope="row">@item.Id</th>
                    <td>@item.ProductName</td>
                    <td>@item.Brand</td>
                    <td>@item.Cost</td>
                    <td>@item.Type</td>
                </tr>
            }
        </tbody>
    </table>
</div>
  • (Line: 1) Need to define our model using '@model'
  • (Line: 14) Looping all our data to bind as table rows
Now let's access our route "https://localhost:5001/gadgets/all".

Create Operation:

Let's create an action method for 'Create Operation' of HTTP Get request.
Controllers/GadgetsController.cs:
[HttpGet]
public IActionResult Create()
{
	return View("Create");
}
  • Simple HTTP Get request action method that return the view(eg: "Create.cshtml").
Now let's create an HTTP Post request action method for our 'Create Operation'.
Controllers/GadgetsController.cs:
[HttpPost]
[ValidateAntiForgeryToken]
public async Task<IActionResult> Create(Gadgets model)
{
	_myWorldDbContext.Gadgets.Add(model);
	await _myWorldDbContext.SaveChangesAsync();
	return RedirectToAction("All");
}
  • (Line: 1) Decorated with the 'HttpPost' attribute to specify the type HTTP request can invoke the action method.
  • (Line: 2) Decorated with the 'ValidateAntiForgeryToken' to protect the form posted data.
  • (Line: 3) Our overloaded 'Create' action method takes the 'Gadgets' type as an input parameter. So on form post, all form data will be stored into this parameter.
  • (Line: 4-6) Saving the new record into the database. After saving we will navigate users to 'All' action method
Now create 'Create.cshtml' view file in the folder 'Views/Gadgets'.
Views/Gadgets/Create.cshtml:
@model Dotnet5.MVC.CRUD.EF.Data.Entities.Gadgets

<div>
    <form aps-action="create" method="post">
        <div class="mb-3">
            <label for="txtProductName" class="form-label">Product Name</label>
            <input asp-for="ProductName" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtProductName" >
        </div>
        <div class="mb-3">
            <label for="txtBrand" class="form-label">Brand</label>
            <input asp-for="Brand" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtBrand" >
        </div>
        <div class="mb-3">
            <label for="txtCost" class="form-label">Cost</label>
            <input asp-for="Cost" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtCost" >
        </div>
        <div class="mb-3">
            <label for="txtType" class="form-label">Type</label>
            <input asp-for="Type" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtType" >
        </div>
        
        <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
    </form>
</div>
  • (Line: 1) Defined 'Model' type.
  • (Line: 4) The 'asp-action' attribute to specify the action name as its value. We also need to configure the 'method' attribute and its value should be 'post'.
  • All input fields in the form decorated with 'asp-for' attribute. So 'asp-for' attribute value must match with the properties of the 'Gadget' type.
Now add the button in  'Views/Gadgets/Index.cshtml' that will navigate to our 'Create' page.
Views/Gadgets/Index.csthml
@model GadgetsContainerVm
<!-- Code hidden for display purpose -->
<div>
    <a href="/gadgets/create" class="btn btn-primary">Create</a>
    <table class="table table-dark table-striped">
    </table>
</div>
step:1
step2:
step:3

Update Operation:

Now let's create the 'Update Operation' action method for the HTTP GET request.
Controllers/GadgetsController.cs:
[HttpGet]
public async Task<IActionResult> Edit(int id)
{
	var gadget = await _myWorldDbContext.Gadgets.Where(_ => _.Id == id).FirstOrDefaultAsync();
	if (gadget == null)
	{
		return NotFound();
	}
	return View("Edit", gadget);
}
  • (Line: 2) Method input parameter 'id' will be read from the URL query parameter.
  • In this HTTP GET request method fetching the data to be edited.
Now let's create the 'Update Operation' action method for the HTTP POST request.
Controllers/GadgetController.cs:
[HttpPost]
[ValidateAntiForgeryToken]
public async Task<IActionResult> Edit(Gadgets modelToUpdate)
{
	_myWorldDbContext.Update(modelToUpdate);
	await _myWorldDbContext.SaveChangesAsync();
	return RedirectToAction("All");
}
  • (Line: 1) Decorated with 'HttpPost'.
  • (Line: 2) Decorated with 'ValidateAntiForgeryToken' attribute for protecting form data posting.
  • (Line: 3-8) Updating the form posted data to database and then redirecting to 'All' action method.
Now let's create our new  view 'Edit.cshtml'. Here 'Edit.cshtml' contains HTML similar to 'Create.cshtml' only difference like we need to maintain our record 'Id' value in hidden field.
Views/Gadgets/Edit.cshtml:
@model Dotnet5.MVC.CRUD.EF.Data.Entities.Gadgets

<div>
    <form aps-action="Edit" method="post">
        <h4>Update</h4>
        <input asp-for="Id" type="hidden" class="form-control" id="txtProductName" >
        <div class="mb-3">
            <label for="txtProductName" class="form-label">Product Name</label>
            <input asp-for="ProductName" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtProductName" >
        </div>
        <div class="mb-3">
            <label for="txtBrand" class="form-label">Brand</label>
            <input asp-for="Brand" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtBrand" >
        </div>
        <div class="mb-3">
            <label for="txtCost" class="form-label">Cost</label>
            <input asp-for="Cost" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtCost" >
        </div>
        <div class="mb-3">
            <label for="txtType" class="form-label">Type</label>
            <input asp-for="Type" type="text" class="form-control" id="txtType" >
        </div>
        
        <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Submit</button>
    </form>
</div>
  • (Line: 6) Hiden field to store our 'Id' value.
Now add the edit button for each record in the table of 'Index.cshtml'
@model GadgetsContainerVm
<!-- Code hidden for display purpose -->
<div>
    <a href="/gadgets/create" class="btn btn-primary">Create</a>
    <table class="table table-dark table-striped">
       
        <tbody>
            @foreach (var item in Model.AllGadgets)
            {
                <tr>
                  
				  
                    <td>
                        <a class="btn btn-primary" href='@($"edit?id={@item.Id}")'>Edit</a>
                    </td>
                </tr>
            }
        </tbody>
    </table>
</div>
  • (Line: 14) Configure 'Edit' but with appropriate route.
step:1
step:2
step:3

Delete Operation:

Now let's create 'Delete' operation action method for HTTP POST request.
Controllers/GadgetsController.cs:
[HttpPost]
[ValidateAntiForgeryToken]
public async Task<IActionResult> Delete(int id)
{
	var gadgetToDelete = await _myWorldDbContext.Gadgets.Where(_ => _.Id == id).FirstOrDefaultAsync();
	if (gadgetToDelete != null)
	{
		_myWorldDbContext.Gadgets.Remove(gadgetToDelete);
		await _myWorldDbContext.SaveChangesAsync();
	}
	return RedirectToAction("All");
}
  • (Line: 1) Decorated with 'HttpPost' attribute.
  • (Line: 2) Decorated with 'ValidateAntiForgeryToken' to avoid forgery request.
  • (Line: 3-12) Based on query parameter 'id' value fetch the record form the database and then delete it from the database and finally navigate to 'All' action method.
In 'Index.cshtml', we need add 'Delete' button and need to configure Bootstrap Modal popup to display the delete confirmation.
Views/Gadgets/Index.csthml:
@model GadgetsContainerVm
<!-- Code hidden for display purpose -->
<div>
    <a href="/gadgets/create" class="btn btn-primary">Create</a>
    <table class="table table-dark table-striped">
        </thead>
        <tbody>
            @foreach (var item in Model.AllGadgets)
            {
                <tr>
                    <td>
                        <a class="btn btn-primary" href='@($"edit?id={@item.Id}")'>Edit</a>|
                        <button class="btn btn-danger" type="button" onclick="deleteGadget(@item.Id)">Delete</button>
                    </td>
                </tr>
            }
        </tbody>
    </table>
</div>

<div class="modal fade" id="deleteModal" tabindex="-1" aria-labelledby="exampleModalLabel" aria-hidden="true">
  <div class="modal-dialog">
    <div class="modal-content">

      <div class="modal-body">
        <h4>Are your sure, you want to delete?</h4>
      </div>
      <div class="modal-footer">
        <button type="button" class="btn btn-secondary" data-bs-dismiss="modal">Close</button>
        <form method="POST" id="deleteForm">
        <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">Delete</button>

        </form>
      </div>
    </div>
  </div>
</div>
  • (Line: 13) Added the 'Delete' button. It click event registered to a method 'deleteGadget'.
  • (Line: 21-37) Html code for Bootstrap Modal.
  • (Line: 31) Here delete button is to invoke our Http Post request 'Delete' action and this button need to be encapsulated with form tag to inoke the post request. The URL will be append to the 'Form' tag dynamically through javascript code(will be show in next step).
Now go to 'wwwroot/js/site.js' file and add the below script.
wwwroot/js/site.js:
function deleteGadget(id) {
    let url = "/gadgets/delete?id="+ id;
    let formElement = document.getElementById("deleteForm");
    formElement.setAttribute("action", url);
    $("#deleteModal").modal('show');
}
  • (Line: 2) Framing our HTTP Post request URL.
  • (Line: 3) Fetching the Form element. This is the form encapsulated our confirm 'Delete' button on bootsrap modal popup.
  • (Line: 4) Adding the 'action' attribute to 'Form' tag and it's value is URL we just framed.
  • (Line: 5) Opens the Bootstrap Modal popup.
So that's all about the .Net5 MVC application CRUD operations using entity framework core.

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