Skip to main content

Part-2 VueJS JWT(JSON Web Token) Authentication(Refresh Token Implementation)

In the Part-1 we have learned steps to build a VueJS application authentication by using an access token(Jwt token). This is the continuation article, here we are going to understand the steps for implementing refresh token and using access token in the request header to call secured API.

NestJS(Nodejs) Todos API:

In Part-1 we discussed steps to set up the Nestjs API. In that API we have a secured endpoint called 'Todos'. In the next step, we are going to consume this 'Todo' API from our angular application.
http://localhost:3000/todos

Access Token Authorization To Access Secured Endpoint:

Now let's try to access the secured endpoint 'todos' mentioned above in our 'Dashboard' page.

Now for this todos, we are going to create another module file like 'todo.js'.
src/store/modules/todo.js:
import axios from 'axios';

const state = () => ({
  todos :[]
});

const getters = {
  getAlltodos(state){
   state.todos;
  }
};

const actions = {
  async getAllTodos({commit}){
	var response = await axios.get('http://localhost:3000/todos');
	if(response && response.data){
	  commit('setTodos', response.data);
	}
  }
};

const mutations = {
  setTodos(state, payload){
   state.todos = payload;
  }
};

export default{
  namespaced: true,
  state,
  getters,
  actions,
  mutations
}
  • (Line: 3-5) The 'state' object will store our 'todos' object.
  • (Line: 7-11) In 'getters' object defined a function 'getAllTodos' that return our collection of  'todos'.
  • (Line: 13-20) In 'actions' object defined 'getAllTodos' that will call our secured endpoint and save the response data using mutation object.
Let's register the todo.js module into the vuex store.
src/store/index.js:
import { createStore } from "vuex";
import authModule from './modules/auth';
import todoModule from './modules/todo';

const store = createStore({
    modules:{
        auth:authModule,
        todo: todoModule
    }
});
export default store;
Now update the 'Dashboard' page to trigger the 'actions' in the todo.js store module to invoke the API call.
src/components/Dashboard.vue:(Html Part)
<template>
  <div>
    <h1>Dashboard Page</h1>
    <div>UserName -- {{ gettersAuthData.userName }}</div>
    <div>Id -- {{ gettersAuthData.userId }}</div>
    <div>
        <h6>My Todos</h6>
        <button type="button" class="btn btn-primary" @click="show()">Show Todos</button>
        <ul>
            <li v-for="(t, index) in gettersAllTodos" :key="index">
                {{t}}
            </li>
        </ul>
    </div>
  </div>
</template>
  • (Line: 8) Create a button registered with the callback method 'show' which will invoke the todos API.
  • (Line: 10-12) Binding the todos data.
src/components/Dashboard.vue:(Script Part)
<script>
import { mapGetters, mapActions } from "vuex";
export default {
  computed: {
    ...mapGetters("todo",{
        gettersAllTodos:"getAlltodos"
    }),
    ...mapGetters("auth", {
      gettersAuthData: "getAuthData",
    }),
  },
  methods:{
      ...mapActions("todo",{
          actionsGetAllTodos:'getAllTodos'
      }),
      async show(){
          await this.actionsGetAllTodos();
      }
  }
};
</script>
  • (Line: 5-7) The 'mapGetters' registered for todo.js module getters were registered with 'getAlltodos' getter that returns all collection of  'todos'.
  • (Line: 16-18) The 'mapActions' registered for todos.js module actions. Here registered 'getAllTodos' action method that will trigger todos API endpoint.
Now let's try to access 'todos' endpoint without any authorization headers, we will receive a response as unauthorized as shown below.
Now to fix this issue we need to add our access token value as an authorization header. So to add the authorization request for the required secured endpoint we are going to create a custom Axios instance with interceptor configuration.
src/shared/jwtInterceptor.js:
import axios from "axios";
import store from '../store/index';

const jwtInterceptor = axios.create({});

jwtInterceptor.interceptors.request.use((config) => {
  const authData = store.getters["auth/getAuthData"];
  config.headers.common["Authorization"] = `bearer ${authData.token}`;
  return config;
});
export default jwtInterceptor;
  • (Line: 4) Creating an instance of Axios and assigned to variable 'jwtInterceptor'. Now, 'jwtInterceptor' works exactly as 'Axios'.
  • (Line: 6) Configuring interceptor for the 'jwtInterceptor' instance.
  • (Line: 7) Fetching token data from the store.
  • (Line: 8) Adding an authorization header. So if we make calls using 'jwtInterceptor' the authorization header will be added to the request.
Now in our todo.js module replace the instance of Axios with 'jwtInterceptor' instance.
src/store/modules/jwtInterceptor.js:
import jwtInterceptor  from '../../shared/jwtInterceptor';

const actions = {
    async getAllTodos({commit}){
        var response = await jwtInterceptor.get('http://localhost:3000/todos');
        if(response && response.data){
            commit('setTodos', response.data);
        }
    }
};
  • Since we are using our custom Axios instance that is 'jwtInterceptor', so for the request authorization header added automatically.

Refresh Token Flow:

  • Refresh Token is a random string key that will be created along with the JWT access token and return to the valid client on successful logging in.
  • Now for all subsequent requests will use the access token, but the access token is a short-lived token whereas the refresh token lives more time than the access token.
  • On the expiration of the access token, the user instead of authenticating himself again passing his user name and password, the user can send the refresh token.
  • The server on receiving a refresh token first validates against the storage(database, cache, etc).
  • For a valid refresh token server will create a new access token and refresh token(like when authenticate using user name and password) return it to the user.

Integrate Refresh Token Endpoint:

Now in our interceptor we need to update logic in such a way that if the access token expires then we need to invoke the refresh token endpoint after receiving new 'access' and 'refresh' tokens we need to update them in browser local storage and also need to restore our vuex state management after that we need to invoke our secured endpoint with a valid access token as its authorization header.
NestJS API Refresh Token Endpoint
URL:- http://localhost:3000/auth/refreshtoken
Payload:{
"access_token":"",
"refresh_token":""
}
Now let's update our interceptor to call the refresh token endpoint if our access token expires.
src/shared/jwtInterceptor.js:
import axios from "axios";
import store from '../store/index';

const jwtInterceptor = axios.create({});


jwtInterceptor.interceptors.request.use((config) => {
    const authData = store.getters["auth/getAuthData"];
    if (authData == null) {
      return config;
    }
  
    config.headers.common["Authorization"] = `bearer ${authData.token}`;
    return config;
  });
  
  jwtInterceptor.interceptors.response.use(
    (response) => {
      return response;
    },
    async (error) => {
      if (error.response.status === 401) {
        const authData = store.getters["auth/getAuthData"];
        const payload = {
          access_token: authData.token,
          refresh_token: authData.refreshToken,
        };
  
        var response = await axios.post(
          "http://localhost:3000/auth/refreshtoken",
          payload
        );
        await store.dispatch("auth/saveTokensToStorage", response.data);
        error.config.headers[
          "Authorization"
        ] = `bearer ${response.data.access_token}`;
        return axios(error.config);
      } else {
        return Promise.reject(error);
      }
    }
  );
  
  export default jwtInterceptor;

  • (Line: 7-15)In the interceptor request, we have implemented a code to add an authorization header to every request which will use this interceptor.
  • (Line: 17-42) Here we capture the response of each request. If the request is good we don't interrupt the flow. If the request has failed then we are implementing some of our application logic.
  • (Line: 22) Checking that the error response is 401(unauthorized) means either we haven't added any authorization header or our access token might have expired.
  • So on token expiration, we will invoke the refresh token endpoint. On receiving a successful response we will store new token data to browser local storage and update our vuex state token data. Using the new access token as an authorization header and reinvoke the failed request.
That's all about the steps for implementing the refresh token functionality.

Support Me!
Buy Me A Coffee PayPal Me

Wrapping Up:

Hopefully, I think this article delivered some useful information on refresh token implementation in VueJS 3.0 application. I love to have your feedback, suggestions, and better techniques in the comment section below.

Refer:

Follow Me:

Comments

  1. sir once access token expired, then if we refresh the page it going to login page,how can refresh token there,simply how can we use interceptor and refresh the token at page loading( i mean like in facebook, in facebook if we login and close browser after sometime ,and if we reopen the same page next day it will not take us to login page we are authenticated using refresh token. how can we implement this please add this too it will help us a lot, in this application it access token is expired and we refresh page it just going to login page but access token expired and if we click button in dashboard then refresh token works, please add refreshing token at page refresh too )

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi moses

      To resolve this issue we need to call refresh token endpoint in the router.js file in 'beforeach' method. Interceptor main goal to add authorization header, so here in this case no need to use interceptor you can use directly axios to invoke the refresh token endpoint.

      I have updated git repo for calling refresh token in router.js file check the link below
      https://github.com/Naveen512/VueJS3.0-JWT-Authentication/blob/master/src/appRouter.js

      Delete
    2. i don't know how to express my gratitude,it helped me a lot.god will always with you,thank you

      Delete
  2. hi sir i have one more doubt ,how can i add "Content-Type : application/json" and
    Accept : application/json" to the interceptor, please help me

    ReplyDelete
  3. thanks a lot
    it was a great help ♥

    ReplyDelete

  4. Because when the token expires it is showing 401 on the network and if I refresh it on the page to give the 401 to each request?

    ReplyDelete

Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

Endpoint Routing In Asp.Net Core

How Routing Works In  Core 2.1 And Below Versions?: In Asp.Net Core routing is configured using app.UseRouter() or app.UseMvc() middleware. app.UseMvc(routes => { routes.MapRoute( name: "default", template: "{controller=Home}/{action=Index}/{id?}"); }); Here in Dotnet Core version 2.1 or below versions on the execution of route middleware request will be navigated appropriate controller matched to the route. An operation or functionality which is dependent on route URL or route values and that need to be implemented before the execution of route middleware can be done by accessing the route path from the current request context as below app.Use(async (context, next) => { if(context.Request.Path.Value.IndexOf("oldvehicle") != -1) { context.Response.Redirect("vehicle"); } else { await next(); } }); app.UseMvc(routes => { routes.MapRoute( name: "vehicleRoute", template: "vehicle", defaul

How Response Caching Works In Asp.Net Core

What Is Response Caching?: Response Caching means storing of response output and using stored response until it's under it's the expiration time. Response Caching approach cuts down some requests to the server and also reduces some workload on the server. Response Caching Headers: Response Caching carried out by the few Http based headers information between client and server. Main Response Caching Headers are like below Cache-Control Pragma Vary Cache-Control Header: Cache-Control header is the main header type for the response caching. Cache-Control will be decorated with the following directives. public - this directive indicates any cache may store the response. private - this directive allows to store response with respect to a single user and can't be stored with shared cache stores. max-age - this directive represents a time to hold a response in the cache. no-cache - this directive represents no storing of response and always fetch the fr

Asp.Net Core MVC Form Validation Techniques

Introduction: Form validations in any applications are like assures that a valid data is storing on servers. All programing frameworks have their own individual implementations for form validations. In Dotnet Core MVC application server-side validations carried on by the models with the help of Data Annotations and the client-side validations carried by the plugin jQuery Unobtrusive Validation. jQuery Unobtrusive Validation is a custom library developed by Microsoft based on the popular library  jQuery Validate . In this article, we are going to learn how the model validation and client-side validation works in Asp.Net Core MVC Application with sample examples. Getting Started: Let's create an Asp.Net Core MVC application project using preferred editors like Microsoft Visual Studio or Microsoft Visual Studio Code. Here I'm using Visual Studio. Let's create an MVC controller and name it as 'PersonController.cs' and add an action method as bel

Blazor WebAssembly Custom Authentication From Scratch

In this article, we are going to explore and implement custom authentication from the scratch. In this sample, we will use JWT authentication for user authentication. Main Building Blocks Of Blazor WebAssembly Authentication: The core concepts of blazor webassembly authentication are: AuthenticationStateProvider Service AuthorizeView Component Task<AuthenticationState> Cascading Property CascadingAuthenticationState Component AuthorizeRouteView Component AuthenticationStateProvider Service - this provider holds the authentication information about the login user. The 'GetAuthenticationStateAsync()' method in the Authentication state provider returns user AuthenticationState. The 'NotifyAuthenticationStateChaged()' to notify the latest user information within the components which using this AuthenticationStateProvider. AuthorizeView Component - displays different content depending on the user authorization state. This component uses the AuthenticationStateProvider

.NET Core MVC Application File Upload To Physical Location With Buffered Technique

Buffering Technique In File Upload: The server will use its Memory(RAM) or Disk Storage to save the files on receiving a file upload request from the client.  Usage of Memory(RAM) or Disk depends on the number of file requests and the size of the file.  Any single buffered file exceeding 64KB is moved from Memory to a temp file on disk.  If an application receives heavy traffic of uploading files there might be a chance of out of Disk or RAM memory which leads to crash application. So this Buffer technique used for small files uploading. In the following article, we create a sample for the file uploading using .NET Core MVC application. Create The .NET Core MVC Project: Let's create a .NET Core MVC project, here for this sample I'm using Visual Studio Code as below.   Check the link to use the Visual Studio Code for .NET Core Application . IFormFile: Microsoft.AspNetCore.Http.IFormFile used for file upload with buffered technique. On uploading files f

Ionic Picker Sample Code In Angular

Introduction: Ionic Picker(ion-picker) is a popup slides up from the bottom of the device screen, which contains rows with selectable column separated items. The main building block of ion-picker as follows: PickerController PickerOptions PickerController: PickerController object helps in creating an ion-picker overlay. create(opts?: Opts): Promise<Overlay> PickerController create method helps in create the picker overlay with the picker options PickerOptions: PickerOptions is a configuration object used by PickerController to display ion-picker. Single Column Ionic Picker: single.item.picker.ts: import { Component } from "@angular/core"; import { PickerController } from "@ionic/angular"; import { PickerOptions } from "@ionic/core"; @Component({ selector: "single-column-picker", templateUrl:"single.item.picker.html" }) export class SingleItemPicker { animals: string[] = ["Tiger&quo

.Net Core HttpClient JSON Extension Methods Using System.Net.Http.Json Package

.Net Core 3.0 onwards Microsoft brought up a new package called System.Net.Http.Json. This new package provides JSON extension methods for HttpClient. These JSON extension methods will have a prebuild mechanism for serializing or deserializing response data or payload of HttpClient call. System.Net.Http.Json extension methods that are provided to HttpClient, few of them are mentioned below. GetFromJsonAsync PostAsJsonAsync PutAsJsonAsync ReadFromJsonAsync In this article, we understand System.Net.Http.Json package by implementing the HttpClient samples by with and without JSON extension methods and compare them. Create A .Net Core Web API Sample Application: Let's create a .Net Core sample Web API application, from this application we will consume another Web API by implementing HttpClient calls. We can create a Web API sample application using IDE like Visual Studio 2019(Supports .Net Core 3.0 plus) or  Visual Studio Code . Create A Typed Client: In .Net Core using the Http

GraphQL API Integration In Asp.Net Core Application

Introduction: GraphQL is a query language for your API and a server-side runtime for executing queries by using a type system you define for your data. GraphQL can be integrated into any framework like ASP.NET, Java, NestJs, etc and it isn't tied to any specific database or storage engine and is instead backed by your existing code and data. How GraphQL API Different From Rest API: GraphQL exposes a single end-point or route for the entire application, regardless of its responses or actions. HTTP-POST is the only Http verb recommended by the GraphQL. The client applications (consumers of API) can give instructions to GraphQL API about what type of properties to be returned in the response. Building Blocks Of GraphQL API: The main building blocks of GraphQL API is Schemas and Types.  A 'Schema' in GrpahQL API describes the functionality available to the clients connect to API. Schema mostly consists of GraphQL Object Types, Queries, Mutations, etc. T

ASP.NET Core Web API Versioning

Introduction: An iteration and evolutionary changes of an ASP.NET Core Web API is handled by Versioning. Versioning of an API gives confidence to the clients which consumes API for a long time. Any changes or development of an API will be accessible using the new version and it won't cause issues to the clients consuming the old version of API. When To Use Versioning: Any API response changes. Developing an API by implementing testing levels like 'Alpha', 'Beta', and 'RC' versions before releasing Production. Deprecating an API which means API going to be removed or upgraded by a version within a short period. Versioning Types: Query String Versioning Url Path Versioning Media Type Versioning API Version Nuget: To Configure versioning to AspNet Core Web API Microsoft provided a library(Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.Versioning). So to use the versioning library please install NuGet below.              Install-Package Microsoft.A

Blazor Server CRUD Operations

Introduction: Blazor Server is a web framework to develop server-side single-page applications. Blazor is made up of components with the combinations on C#, Html, CSS.  Blazor Server is production-ready from the .Net Core 3.0.  Blazor Server Working Mechanism: Blazor Server is a very light-weight web development framework.  In Blazor Server, not all code gets downloaded to the client browsers. Blazor Server made of components these components can be a block of code or page with respective navigation.  Blazor server application communicates with the server with a SignalR background connection which is inbuilt functionality. Application click,  form submission, change events, application page navigation every operation is carried out by the SignalR connection by communicating with the server.  Blazor updates the Html DOM very gently on every data update without any overhead. Blazor Server application maintains a nice intelligent tree structure to update the required inform