Skip to main content

Vue 3 Consume GraphQL Endpoint Using Vue Apollo

In this article, we are going to implement Vue 3 sample application that consumes GrpahQL Endpoint using the Vue Apollo library.

Create Vue 3 Application:

Let's create a sample Vue 3 application to accomplish our demo.
Vue CLI Command To Create Project:
vue create your_project_name

GraphQL Server Endpoint:

We should have a GraphQL server endpoint for our demo. So I created a GraphQL server endpoint using 'Dotnet', so I'm going to use it here so its URL be like 'https://localhost:6001/graphql'. So please make sure to have your own GraphQL server endpoint.

Install Vue Apollo And Its Dependent Libraries:

npm install --save @vue/apollo-option

npm install --save @apollo/client

npm install --save graphql

npm install --save graphql-tag

One more plugin we have to install 'react', at the time of this article written we will get an error that says that need to install the 'react', so this 'react' installation might be avoided in feature releases of '@apollo/client'.
npm install react

Initial ApolloClient Setup:

Let's create a file to set up the ApolloClient like 'apollo.provider.js'.
src/apollo.provider.js:
import { InMemoryCache, ApolloClient } from "@apollo/client";
import { createApolloProvider } from "@vue/apollo-option";

const cache = new InMemoryCache();

const apolloClient = new ApolloClient({
  cache,
  uri: "https://localhost:6001/graphql/",
});

export const provider = createApolloProvider({
  defaultClient: apolloClient,
});
  • (Line: 4) Initialize the 'InMemoryCache' loads from the '@apollo/client'. The reason behind using the 'InMemoryCache' is to store the API response into the cache so that the subsequent request will load the data from the cache instead of calling API again and again.
  • (Line: 6-9) Initialize the 'ApolloClient' load from the '@apollo/client'.Here we have to pass configurations like 'cache' and our Graphql endpoint.
  • (Line: 11-13) Defined the 'createApolloProvider' that loads from the '@vue/apollo-option'.
src/Main.js:
import { createApp } from 'vue'
import App from './App.vue'
import * as apolloProvider from './apollo.provider'

const app = createApp(App)

app.use(apolloProvider.provider);
app.mount('#app');
  • (Line: 3) Imported the 'apolloProvider'.
  • (Line: 7) Integrating 'apolloProvider' into the vue instance.

Query:

The 'Query' to fetch the data from the GraphQL endpoint.
query {
  fetchAllGadgets{
    id,
    productName,
    brand,
    cost,
    type
  }
}
  • Here 'id', 'prodcutName', 'brand', 'cost', 'type' are requested props from the server.

Implement Query:

Let's create a new component like 'components/Home.vue'. So now let's use 'Query' to fetch the data and display it on the bootstrap table.
components/Home.vue(HTML Template Part):
<template>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="row mt-1">
      <table class="table table-bordered">
        <thead>
          <tr>
            <th scope="col">Id</th>
            <th scope="col">Product Name</th>
            <th scope="col">Brand</th>
            <th scope="col">Cost</th>
            <th scope="col">Type</th>
          </tr>
        </thead>
        <tbody>
          <tr v-for="item in fetchAllGadgets" :key="item.id">
            <td>{{ item.id }}</td>
            <td>{{ item.productName }}</td>
            <td>{{ item.brand }}</td>
            <td>{{ item.cost }}</td>
            <td>{{ item.type }}</td>
          </tr>
        </tbody>
      </table>
    </div>
  </div>
</template>
  • Binding the response data to the bootstrap table.
components/Home.vue:(Script Part)
<script>
import gql from "graphql-tag";
export default {
  apollo: {
    fetchAllGadgets: {
      query: gql`
        query {
          fetchAllGadgets {
            id
            productName
            brand
            cost
            type
          }
        }
      `
    },
    
  },
  data() {
    return {
      fetchAllGadgets: []
    };
  }
};
</script>
  • (Line: 4) All 'Queries' have to be defined inside of the 'apollo' property. The 'apollo' is not a vue predefined property it was designed for GraphQL 'Queries.
  • The 'fetchAllGadgets' property at 'Line-5' and 'Line-22' must match with the name of the 'Query' at 'Line-8'. The 'Vue Apollo' library can easily understand the property naming conventions. For suppose if you want to give a different property name at 'Line-5' and 'Line-22' we have to do some explicit implementation.
  • So here property name in 'data()' function and property name 'apollo' object are same(fetchAllGadgets). So whenever we used this property for HTML binding then automatically corresponding 'Query' property in 'apollo' object gets executed automatically GraphQL  Endpoint invoked and fetches the data.
Now run our application and then check the output.

Configure Vue Routing:

Let's create a new component like 'CreateForm.vue'. This component will be used to add new items using 'Mutation' of GraphQL in upcoming steps.
components/CreateForm.vue:
<template>
    <div>Create Form</div>
</template>
<script>
export default {
}
</script>
Now run the below command to install the vue route library.
npm install vue-router@4

Now let's create a new js file like 'appRouter.js', where we have to define all our application routes.
src/appRouter.js:
import { createRouter, createWebHistory } from "vue-router";

import Home from "./components/Home.vue";
import CreateForm from "./components/CreateForm.vue";

const routes = [
  { path: "/", component: Home },
  { path: "/create-form", component: CreateForm }
];

export const router = createRouter({
  history: createWebHistory(),
  routes: routes,
});
Now inject the route into the vue instance.
src/main.js:
import { createApp } from 'vue'
import App from './App.vue'
import * as apolloProvider from './apollo.provider'
import * as routerConfig from './appRouter'

const app = createApp(App)

app.use(apolloProvider.provider);
app.use(routerConfig.router);
app.mount('#app');
  • (Line: 4) Imported the 'appRouter'.
  • (Line: 9) Induced our vue route into the vue instance pipeline. 
Add the bootstrap menu in the 'App.vue' component.
src/App.vue:
<template>
  <nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-primary">
    <div class="container-fluid">
      <div
        class="collapse navbar-collapse text-white"
        id="navbarSupportedContent"
      >
        <ul class="navbar-nav me-auto mb-2 mb-lg-0">
          <li class="nav-item active">
            <router-link to="/" class="nav-link">Home</router-link>
          </li>
          <li class="nav-item">
            <router-link to="/create-form" class="nav-link"
              >Create Form</router-link
            >
          </li>
        </ul>
      </div>
    </div>
  </nav>
  <router-view></router-view>
</template>
Now run the application and check the output.

Understand InMemory Cache Flow:

From the initial steps, we know by default Vue Apollo uses InMemory cache to store all the results of the 'Queries'. So to check it, open browser developer tools and goto network calls and then navigate between the routes at the menu, you can observe only one GraphQL call, but the results will be populated from the cache.

Now if you want to disable cache for any 'Query', we can achieve it by using 'fetchpolicy' value to 'no-cahce'. So now update our 'fetchAllGadgets' object inside of the 'apollo' object as below.
components/Home.vue:
apollo: {
    fetchAllGadgets: {
      query: gql`
        query {
          fetchAllGadgets {
            id
            productName
            brand
            cost
            type
          }
        }
      `,
      fetchPolicy: "no-cache"
    }, 
}
Now if we check network calls every time a component loads GraphQL API calls will be invoked.

Query With Parameters:

So for a query to pass dynamic value we have to use the concept of 'variable'. Using variables we can pass the query params.
Query:
query($brandQuery:String){
  filterByBrand(brand:$brandQuery){
    id,
    productName,
    brand,
    cost,
    type
  }
}
  • Here '$brandQuery' is a variable type whose value will be dynamically replaced by the 'variable' object.
Variable:
{
  "brandQuery":"Samsung"
}
  • So here property name 'brandQuery' inside the variable object must match with '$brandQuery' in the Query.

Implement Query With Parameters:

The previous 'Query' is plain with fetches all data from the server. Now let's update our sample to add a search box on top of our table so that we can use the 'Query' with parameters.
components/Home.vue:(Template Part)
<template>
  <div class="container">
    <div class="container mt-3">
      <form class="d-flex">
        <input
          class="form-control me-2"
          type="search"
          v-model="searchValue"
          placeholder="Search By Brand"
        />
        <button
          class="btn btn-outline-primary"
          v-on:click="searchByBrand"
          type="button"
        >
          Search
        </button>
      </form>
    </div>
    <div class="row mt-1">
      <table class="table table-bordered">
        <thead>
          <tr>
            <th scope="col">Id</th>
            <th scope="col">Product Name</th>
            <th scope="col">Brand</th>
            <th scope="col">Cost</th>
            <th scope="col">Type</th>
          </tr>
        </thead>
        <tbody>
          <tr v-for="item in filterByBrand" :key="item.id">
            <td>{{ item.id }}</td>
            <td>{{ item.productName }}</td>
            <td>{{ item.brand }}</td>
            <td>{{ item.cost }}</td>
            <td>{{ item.type }}</td>
          </tr>
        </tbody>
      </table>
    </div>
  </div>
</template>
  • (Line: 5-10) Added search box and enable model binding with 'searchValue' property.
  • (Line: 11-17) Added search button and register the click event with 'searchByBrand' method.
  • (Line: 32) Updated results property as 'filterByBrand'.
components/Home.vue:(Script Part)
<script>
import gql from "graphql-tag";
export default {
  apollo: {
    filterByBrand: {
      query: gql`
        query ($brandQuery: String) {
          filterByBrand(brand: $brandQuery) {
            id
            productName
            brand
            cost
            type
          }
        }
      `,
      variables() {
        return {
          brandQuery: this.brandQuery,
        };
      },
    },
  },
  data() {
    return {
      filterByBrand: [],
      searchValue: "",
      brandQuery: "",
    };
  },
  methods: {
    searchByBrand() {
      this.brandQuery = this.searchValue;
    },
  },
};
</script>
  • (Line: 5-15) Query with parameters registered inside of the 'apollo' object.
  • (Line: 17-21) Here 'variables()' are registered as a function because the data inside of it changes, then it will automatically invoke API call. So here the data property  'brandQuery' change will invoke the API call. So to achieve reactiveness we have to register 'variables' like functions.
  • (Line: 32-34) Registered 'searchByBrand'. Here if we observe we have created 2 data properties like 'searchValue' and 'brandQuery' reason if we use single property then every key entering in the search bar will trigger the API call.

Mutation:

Mutation operation to save data to the server. So data will be carried out by the GraphQL variable concept.
Mutation:
mutation ($myGadgets:GadgetsInput){
  save(model: $myGadgets){
    id,
    productName,
    brand,
    cost,
    type
  }
}
Variables:
{
  "myGadgets":{
    "productName":"Samsung Galaxy G1000",
    "brand":"Samsung",
    "cost":10000,
    "type":"mobile"
  }
}

Implement Mutation:

Now let's understand the mutation operation to save items to the server. So in our example in 'CreateForm.vue' component let's add a form to submit the new item.
components/CreateForm.vue:(Template Part)
<template>
  <div class="container mt-4">
    <form class="col-lg-6 offset-lg-3">
      <div class="row text-center">
        <h4>Create A Gadget</h4>
      </div>
      <input
        class="form-control mt-2"
        type="text"
        v-model="gadget.productName"
        placeholder="Enter Product Name"
      />
      <input
        class="form-control mt-2"
        type="text"
        v-model="gadget.brand"
        placeholder="Enter Brand"
      />
      <input
        class="form-control mt-2"
        type="number"
        v-model="gadget.cost"
        placeholder="Enter Cost"
      />
      <input
        class="form-control mt-2"
        type="text"
        v-model="gadget.type"
        placeholder="Enter Type"
      />

      <button
        class="btn btn-outline-primary offset-5 mt-2 justify-content-center"
        type="button"
        v-on:click="addGadget"
      >
        Create
      </button>
    </form>
  </div>
</template>
  • Added a small form to post the data to the server.
  • (Line: 35)Button register with an 'addGadget' method.
components/CreateForm.vue:(Script Part)
<script>
import gql from "graphql-tag";
const filterByBrandQuery = gql`
  query ($brandQuery: String) {
    filterByBrand(brand: $brandQuery) {
      id
      productName
      brand
      cost
      type
    }
  }
`;
export default {
  data() {
    return {
      gadget: {
        productName: "",
        brand: "",
        cost: 0,
        type: "",
      },
    };
  },
  methods: {
    addGadget() {
      this.$apollo
        .mutate({
          mutation: gql`
            mutation ($myGadgets: GadgetsInput) {
              save(model: $myGadgets) {
                id
                productName
                brand
                cost
                type
              }
            }
          `,
          variables: {
            myGadgets: this.gadget,
          },
          update: (store, { data: { save } }) => {
            const gadgetsQuery = {
              query: filterByBrandQuery,
              variables: { brandQuery: "" },
            };

            const existingData = Object.assign(
              {},
              store.readQuery(gadgetsQuery)
            );
            const newData = [];
            newData.push(save);
            for (let i = 0; i < existingData.filterByBrand.length; i++) {
              newData.push(existingData.filterByBrand[i]);
            }
            existingData.filterByBrand = newData;
            store.writeQuery({
              query: filterByBrandQuery,
              variables: { brandQuery: "" },
              data: existingData,
            });
          },
        })
        .then((data) => {
          console.log(data);
          this.$router.push("/");
        })
        .catch((error) => {
          console.log(error);
        });
    },
  },
};
</script>
  • (Line: 3-13) Defined our 'Query' with params as constant. This value will be used to update the cache data.
  • (Line: 17-22) The 'gadgets' object is used to model binding for our form.
  • (Line: 27-28) The 'this.$apollo.mutate({})' method provides us by 'Vue Apollo' library.
  • (Line: 29-25) Defined the 'Mutation' to post the data to the server.
  • (Line: 43-63) The 'update' method is to store the newly saved item into the cache.
  • (Line: 43) The 'save' property name must match with the name in 'Mutation' it is like the response object property name.
  • (Line: 45-47) Preparing the 'Query' with parameter.
  • (Line: 49-52) Using our 'Query' fetching all collection of data from the in-memory cache.
  • (Line: 53-58) The latest record was pushed into the collection.
  • (Line: 59-63) Updating the collection into the memory cache using 'store.writeQuery({})'
  • (Line: 68) On the successful response from the sever navigating back to 'Home' component
So that's all about the sample demo on Vue 3 application to consume GraphQL API using the Vue Apollo.

Video Session:

 

Support Me!
Buy Me A Coffee PayPal Me

Wrapping Up:

Hopefully, I think this article delivered some useful information on Vue 3 application to consume GraphQL Endpoint using the Vue Apollo library. I love to have your feedback, suggestions, and better techniques in the comment section below.

Refer:

Follow Me:

Comments

  1. Hi Naveen, thanks for the tutorial. Have you done fetching file or image from graphene-django using vue as a front end? Do you have any suggestion where to find a good material to understand this?

    ReplyDelete

Post a Comment

Popular posts from this blog

.NET6 Web API CRUD Operation With Entity Framework Core

In this article, we are going to do a small demo on AspNetCore 6 Web API CRUD operations. What Is Web API: Web API is a framework for building HTTP services that can be accessed from any client like browser, mobile devices, desktop apps. In simple terminology API(Application Programming Interface) means an interface module that contains a programming function that can be requested via HTTP calls to save or fetch the data for their respective clients. Some of the key characteristics of API: Supports HTTP verbs like 'GET', 'POST', 'PUT', 'DELETE', etc. Supports default responses like 'XML' and 'JSON'. Also can define custom responses. Supports self-hosting or individual hosting, so that all different kinds of apps can consume it. Authentication and Authorization are easy to implement. The ideal platform to build REST full services. Create A .NET6 Web API Application: Let's create a .Net6 Web API sample application to accomplish our

Usage Of CancellationToken In Asp.Net Core Applications

When To Use CancellationToken?: In a web application request abortion or orphan, requests are quite common. On users disconnected by network interruption or navigating between multiple pages before proper response or closing of the browser, tabs make the request aborted or orphan. An orphan request can't deliver a response to the client, but it will execute all steps(like database calls, HTTP calls, etc) at the server. Complete execution of an orphan request at the server might not be a problem generally if at all requests need to work on time taking a job at the server in those cases might be nice to terminate the execution immediately. So CancellationToken can be used to terminate a request execution at the server immediately once the request is aborted or orphan. Here we are going to see some sample code snippets about implementing a CancellationToken for Entity FrameworkCore, Dapper ORM, and HttpClient calls in Asp.NetCore MVC application. Note: The sample codes I will show in

A Small Guide On NestJS Queues

NestJS Application Queues helps to deal with application scaling and performance challenges. When To Use Queues?: API request that mostly involves in time taking operations like CPU bound operation, doing them synchronously which will result in thread blocking. So to avoid these issues, it is an appropriate way to make the CPU-bound operation separate background job.  In nestjs one of the best solutions for these kinds of tasks is to implement the Queues. For queueing mechanism in the nestjs application most recommended library is '@nestjs/bull'(Bull is nodejs queue library). The 'Bull' depends on Redis cache for data storage like a job. So in this queueing technique, we will create services like 'Producer' and 'Consumer'. The 'Producer' is used to push our jobs into the Redis stores. The consumer will read those jobs(eg: CPU Bound Operations) and process them. So by using this queues technique user requests processed very fastly because actually

Blazor WebAssembly Custom Authentication From Scratch

In this article, we are going to explore and implement custom authentication from the scratch. In this sample, we will use JWT authentication for user authentication. Main Building Blocks Of Blazor WebAssembly Authentication: The core concepts of blazor webassembly authentication are: AuthenticationStateProvider Service AuthorizeView Component Task<AuthenticationState> Cascading Property CascadingAuthenticationState Component AuthorizeRouteView Component AuthenticationStateProvider Service - this provider holds the authentication information about the login user. The 'GetAuthenticationStateAsync()' method in the Authentication state provider returns user AuthenticationState. The 'NotifyAuthenticationStateChaged()' to notify the latest user information within the components which using this AuthenticationStateProvider. AuthorizeView Component - displays different content depending on the user authorization state. This component uses the AuthenticationStateProvider

How Response Caching Works In Asp.Net Core

What Is Response Caching?: Response Caching means storing of response output and using stored response until it's under it's the expiration time. Response Caching approach cuts down some requests to the server and also reduces some workload on the server. Response Caching Headers: Response Caching carried out by the few Http based headers information between client and server. Main Response Caching Headers are like below Cache-Control Pragma Vary Cache-Control Header: Cache-Control header is the main header type for the response caching. Cache-Control will be decorated with the following directives. public - this directive indicates any cache may store the response. private - this directive allows to store response with respect to a single user and can't be stored with shared cache stores. max-age - this directive represents a time to hold a response in the cache. no-cache - this directive represents no storing of response and always fetch the fr

Part-1 Angular JWT Authentication Using HTTP Only Cookie[Angular V13]

In this article, we are going to implement a sample angular application authentication using HTTP only cookie that contains a JWT token. HTTP Only JWT Cookie: In a SPA(Single Page Application) Authentication JWT token either can be stored in browser 'LocalStorage' or in 'Cookie'. Storing JWT token inside of the cookie then the cookie should be HTTP Only. The HTTP-Only cookie nature is that it will be only accessible by the server application. Client apps like javascript-based apps can't access the HTTP-Only cookie. So if we use authentication with HTTP only JWT cookie then we no need to implement custom logic like adding authorization header or storing token data, etc at our client application. Because once the user authenticated cookie will be automatically sent to the server by the browser on every API call. Authentication API: To implement JWT cookie authentication we need to set up an API. For that, I had created a mock authentication API(Using the NestJS Se

Unit Testing Asp.NetCore Web API Using xUnit[.NET6]

In this article, we are going to write test cases to an Asp.NetCore Web API(.NET6) application using the xUnit. xUnit For .NET: The xUnit for .Net is a free, open-source, community-focused unit testing tool for .NET applications. By default .Net also provides a xUnit project template to implement test cases. Unit test cases build upon the 'AAA' formula that means 'Arrange', 'Act' and 'Assert' Arrange - Declaring variables, objects, instantiating mocks, etc. Act - Calling or invoking the method that needs to be tested. Assert - The assert ensures that code behaves as expected means yielding expected output. Create An API And Unit Test Projects: Let's create a .Net6 Web API and xUnit sample applications to accomplish our demo. We can use either Visual Studio 2022 or Visual Studio Code(using .NET CLI commands) to create any.Net6 application. For this demo, I'm using the 'Visual Studio Code'(using the .NET CLI command) editor. Create a fo

Different HttpClient Techniques To Consume API Calls In Minimal API[.NET6]

In this article, we are going to implement different HttpClient techniques to consume API calls in minimal API. The different HttpClient techniques that we are going to explore are like: Register HttpClient Object Explicitly In DI(Dependency Injection Service) Named Client Type Client HttpRequestMessage Object Create A .NET6 Minimal API Project: Let's create a .Net6 Minimal API sample project to accomplish our demo. We can use either Visual Studio 2022 or Visual Studio Code(using .NET CLI commands) to create any.Net6 application. For this demo, I'm using the 'Visual Studio Code'(using the .NET CLI command) editor. CLI command For Minimal API Project dotnet new webapi -minimal -o Your_Project_Name Create A Third Party API Response Model: Here I'm going to use a free third-party rest API that is "https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/posts". So to receive the response let's create a response model like 'Post.cs'. Program.cs:(Add Post.cs c

.Net5 Web API Managing Files Using Azure Blob Storage

In this article, we are going to understand the different file operations like uploading, reading, downloading, and deleting in .Net5 Web API application using Azure Blob Storage. Azure Blob Storage: Azure blob storage is Microsoft cloud storage. Blob storage can store a massive amount of file data as unstructured data. The unstructured data means not belong to any specific type, which means text or binary data. So something like images or pdf or videos to store in the cloud, then the most recommended is to use the blob store. The key component to creating azure blob storage resource: Storage Account:- A Storage account gives a unique namespace in Azure for all the data we will save. Every object that we store in Azure Storage has an address. The address is nothing but the unique name of our Storage Account name. The combination of the account name and the Azure Storage blob endpoint forms the base address for each object in our Storage account. For example, if our Storage Account is n

.Net5 Web API Redis Cache Using StackExchange.Redis.Extensions.AspNetCore Library

In this article, we are going to explore the integration of Redis cache in .Net5 Web API application using the 'StackExchange.Redis.Exntensions' library. Note:- Microsoft has introduced an 'IDistributedCache' interface in dotnet core which supports different cache stores like In-Memory, Redis, NCache, etc. It is simple and easy to work with  'IDistributedCache', for the Redis store with limited features but if we want more features of the Redis store we can choose to use 'StackExchange.Redis.Extensions'.  Click here for Redis Cache Integration Using IDistributedCache Interface . Overview On StackExchange.Redis.Extnesions Library: The 'StackExchange.Redis.Extension' library extended from the main library 'StackExchange.Redis'. Some of the key features of this library like: Default serialization and deserialization. Easy to save and fetch complex objects. Search key. Multiple Database Access Setup Redis Docker Instance: For this sampl